TOEFL 400 kelime serimizin onuncu bölümünde “Spirituality” başlığına yönelik aşağıdaki 10 kelime derlenmiştir:

4be inclined to
  • 1- agnostic

agnostic (adj): agnostik, agnostisizm ile ilgili
Although Thomas was raised a Catholic, he was an agnostic for most of his adult life.
agnostic (n): agnostik, bilinemezci
agnosticism (n): agnostisizm, bilinemezcilik

  • 2- animism

animism (n): animizm, canlıcılık
Desert cultures that practice animism often believe that winds contain spirits.
animistic (adj): animist

  • 3- atheist

atheist (n): ateist, Tanrı’ya inanmayan kimse
Anna’s father was an atheist.
atheistic (adj): ateist, dinsiz, tanrıtanımaz

  • 4- be inclined to

be inclined to (v): meyilli olmak
John was inclined to agree with them.
incline (n): eğim, yokuş, meyil
inclination (n): eğim, eğilim, meyil, eğiklik, eğilme, eğim açısı, beğeni, heves

  • 5- contemplate

contemplate (v): tasarlamak, düşünmek, seyretmek, süzmek, niyet etmek
If Thomas contemplates each step for so long, they will never complete this project on time.
contemplation (n): niyet, seyretme, derin düşünce
contemplative (adj): düşünceye dalmış, dini düşüncelere dalmış

  • 6- deify

deify (v): tapmak, tanrılaştırmak
The Romans used to deify their emperors.
deity (n): ilah, tanrı, tanrılık

  • 7- ecclesiastical

ecclesiastical (adj): Hristiyan dinine ait, kiliseye ait
Emma was looking specifically for a university where she could study ecclesiastical history.
ecclesiastic (n): din adamı
ecclesiastically (adv): dini olarak

  • 8- exalt

exalt (v): yüceltmek, yükseltmek, övmek
The party will continue to exalt its hero
exaltation (n): yüceltme, coşkunluk, heyecan

  • 9- pious

pious (adj): dindar
Sometimes Anna was so pious that the rest of us felt like heathens.
piety (n): dindarlık
piousness (n): dindarlık
piously (adv): dindarca

  • 10- sacrifice

sacrifice (v): kurban etmek, feda etmek, kıymak
Many women sacrifice their own ambitions to put their family first.
sacrifice (n): kurban
sacrificial (adj): kurban, kurbanlık
sacrificially (adv): fedakarca

Yukarıdaki kelimelerle alakalı pratik bir test çözmek için:


1 / 10

1. She was always ______ to listen to others' viewpoints before forming her own opinions.

2 / 10

2. The stained glass windows and high ceilings gave the building an ______ aura.

3 / 10

3. As an ______, he didn't believe in the existence of any god or higher power.

4 / 10

4. In the name of their religion, some followers may perform a ______ to show their devotion.

5 / 10

5. The pope is a ______ figure in the Catholic Church, revered by millions of followers worldwide.

6 / 10

6. He began to ______ the possibility of pursuing a career in the arts after graduating from college.

7 / 10

7. A person who is unsure whether God exists or not is often referred to as a/an ______.

8 / 10

8. Many cultures still practice ______, believing in the spiritual essence of natural elements like trees and rivers.

9 / 10

9. The ______ of a deity often involves giving them attributes and status above those of ordinary humans.

10 / 10

10. She was a/an ______ person, attending church every Sunday and participating in community service.



In the vast expanse of Russia, a rich tapestry of religions flourishes, encompassing Christianity, Judaism, Islam, and the age-old belief system of animism. Christianity, being the most prevalent, is predominantly practised through the traditions of the Russian Orthodox Church. A beacon of faith standing strong for over a millennium, this church has weathered even the harshest storms of enforced atheism during the Soviet era and the swelling tide of agnosticism.

Despite the stark communist years, many devout Orthodox followers clung to their faith, even at the expense of their careers and educational prospects. Such sacrifices bore testament to the unwavering resolve of Russian Orthodoxy, a resilience that perhaps explains why even non-religious Russians may feel inclined to identify as Russian Orthodox.

The figure spearheading this enduring institution today is none other than Aleksey II of Moscow. Born as Aleksey Mikhailovich Ridiger, the future patriarch hailed from a deeply pious family. It was perhaps during his childhood pilgrimages that young Aleksey began to contemplate the religious path he would eventually choose.

As patriarch, Aleksey occupies an exalted position within Church governance. However, despite this venerated status, he is not deified, preserving the important distinction between reverence and worship. An active contributor to both ecclesiastical and secular discourse, Aleksey’s published works on Church history and peace-making initiatives have served to broaden the Church’s image, not just within Russia but also on the international stage.

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